The Ice Age was a period characterized by alternating warm and cold phases, with the mammoth steppe serving as a habitat for various large mammals. The causes of these climate cycles remain unresolved, although factors such as changes in the Earth's orbit and atmospheric CO2 levels are believed to play a role. Human evolution thrived during the Ice Age, with important cultural remains found in Europe. Neanderthals and Denisovans were among the human forms that interacted and left genetic traces in modern humans. Archaeological sites and rock art provide glimpses into the lives of Ice Age inhabitants.